Signal Analysis of the Climate: Correlation, Delay and Feedback

Peter Stallinga University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal Abstract One of the ingredients of anthropogenic global warming is the existence of a large correlation between carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and the temperature. In this work we analyze the original time-series data that led to the new wave of climate research and test the two hypotheses that might explain …

Scrutinizing the carbon cycle and CO 2 residence time in the atmosphere

Hermann Harde Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, Experimental Physics and Materials Science, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg, Germany Received in revised form 11 February 2017 Abstract Climate scientists presume that the carbon cycle has come out of balance due to the increasing anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use change. This is made responsible for the rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over …

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

December 2013 P. Stallinga and Igor Khmelinskii Universidade do Algarve, Portugal Abstract The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays. …

Solution chemistry of carbon dioxide in sea water

Chapter 2 Introduction This chapter outlines the chemistry of carbon dioxide in sea water so as to provide a coherent background for the rest of this Handbook. The following sections lay out the thermodynamic framework required for an understanding of the solution chemistry; the thermodynamic data needed to interpret field and laboratory results are presented in Chapter 5 of this …

Ocean CO2 Measurements and Calculations

Timothy J. Lueker, Andrew G. Dickson, Charles D. Keeling 15 December 1999 Abstract The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the ocean’s surface waters, precisely expressed as the fugacity (ƒCO2) is determined from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) , and the first and second dissociation constants of carbonic acid (K1 and K2) The original measurements of K1 …

Compilation of Henry’s law constants (version 4.0) for water as solvent

Copernicus.org R. Sander Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany Received: 26 Jun 2014 – Discussion started: 28 Nov 2014 – Revised: 16 Mar 2015 – Accepted: 24 Mar 2015 – Published: 30 Apr 2015 Abstract. Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol …

EXTRATERRESTRIAL FORCING OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A PARODY

by JAMAL MUNSHI, Ph.D. ABSTRACT: It is proposed that visitation by extraterrestrial spacecraft (UFO) alters the electromagnetic properties of the earth, its atmosphere, and its oceans and that these changes can cause global warming leading to climate change and thence to the catastrophic consequences of floods, droughts, severe storms, and sea level rise. An empirical test of this theory is …